EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Sustainable Chemical Technologies

This project has received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Training Grant (grant reference EP/L016354/1).


The EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Sustainable Chemical Technologies was established in 2009. The CDT training programme is interdisciplinary in nature, bringing together science and engineering to carry out research in collaboration with the Centre’s industrial partners. This programme, which will run until 2023, divides its research outputs into four different themes:

  • Energy & Water
  • Renewable Feedstocks & Biotechnology
  • Processes & Manufacturing
  • Healthcare Technologies

The CDT is currently training over 50 PhD students and has graduated 7 cohorts of students.

The CDT’s themes and activities

Our four research themes

Click on the icon below to find out more about your chosen research theme.


Solar cells, fuel cells and batteries, sustainable water supply, water cycle & human health.

Sustainable clean energy and water management are among the most urgent global challenges, and pose fundamental scientific and engineering questions. We will address key research challenges that span the chemistry/chemical engineering interface, including: sustainable solar cells; energy storage and batteries; sustainable water supply; and water cycle and human health.

Major grants

Photocatalytic Anodic Metal Membranes for Micropollutant Removal

This project addresses the twin challenges that have so-far hindered the use of photocatalysis in water treatment: the potential leaching of photocatalytic slurries in the environment and the low efficiency of UV light illumination, which translates in low activity, for immobilised photocatalysts.

ReNEW – Developing Resilient Nations – Towards a Public Heath Early Warning System via Urban Water Profiling

An innovative solution to current problems with rapidly identifying and responding to deteriorating public health and environmental conditions in fast developing urban environments in LMIC countries, aiming to manage risks to public and environmental health relating to urbanisation, population growth, lack of infrastructure and the overarching challenge of climate change. We will establish a cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research capability, based on engineering and digital technology approaches, for real-time community-wide diagnostics and tuneable multi-hazard public health early warning system (EWS) with the ultimate goal of strengthening communities’ resilience.

Energy Materials: Computational Solutions

Our vision is to develop and apply predictive techniques for modelling the atomic level operation of energy materials. We will enable the development of new materials for the next generations of energy devices, causing a step change in the performance of solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, solid oxide fuel cells and thermoelectric devices.

H2FCSupergen — The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Hub

H2FC Supergen logoH2FC (Hydrogen and Fuel Cells) is the first connected, inclusive research infrastructure in the UK that will span the entire Hydrogen and Fuel Cell landscape. Although the initiative is UK-based we have strong international links. We utlise networks, knowledge exchange and stakeholder (including outreach) engagement, community building, and education, training and continuous professional development.

SEWPROF ITN — A new paradigm in drug use and human health risk assessment: Sewage profiling at the community level

SEWPROF aims to develop inter-disciplinary and cross-sectoral research capability for the next generation of scientists working in the newly-emerging field of sewage epidemiology. It will provide an integrated approach towards public health monitoring at a community level based on innovative sewage epidemiology techniques.

SPECIFIC — Sustainable Product Engineering Centre for Innovative Functional Industrial Coatings

SPECIFIC, an academic and industrial consortium led by Swansea University with Tata Steel as the main industrial partner, is funded by EPSRC, Technology Strategy Board and the Welsh Government. The shared vision is to develop functional coated steel and glass products for roofs and walls that generate, store and release renewable energy – transforming buildings into power stations and delivering significant environmental and economic benefits.

SUPERGEN Energy Storage Hub

Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. It has a vital role to play in storing electricity from renewable sources (wind, wave, solar) and is key to the electrification of transport. However, current energy storage technologies are not fit for purpose. This consortium brings together investigators with strong international and national reputations in energy storage research and spanning the entire value chain from the energy storage technologies themselves, through manufacturing, integration, and evaluation of the whole system in which the energy storage would be embedded.

SUPERSOLAR Solar Energy Hub

The Supergen Solar Hub is an exciting 5 year project that will see the creation of the UK’s first standards lab for solar cells, a research programme that aims to improve the efficiency of next generation photovoltaic devices. We also intend to set up a training programme for the Photovoltaic research sector and the formation of an inclusive solar community that links research carried out in universities and industry.

Key publications

Zoumpouli, GA, Siqueira Souza, F, Petrie, B, Amaral Féris, L, Kasprzyk-Hordern, B, & Wenk, J 2020,  ‘Simultaneous ozonation of 90 organic micropollutants including illicit drugs and their metabolites in different water matrices’, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol. https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ew00260g

Cresswell, AJ, Ryder, A, Cunningham, W, Ballantyne, G, Mules, T, Kinsella, A, Turner-Dore, J, Alder, C, Edwards, L, McKay, B & Grayson, M 2020, ‘Photocatalytic α-Tertiary Amine Synthesis via C–H Alkylation of Unmasked Primary Amines’, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.202005294

Provis-Evans, CB, Farrar, EHE, Grayson, MN, Webster, RL & Hill, A 2020, ‘Highly Sensitive Real-Time Isotopic Quantification of Water by ATR-FTIR’, Analytical Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b05635

Taylor, C, Mattia, D & Wenk, J 2020, ‘Photocatalytic immobilised TiO2 nanostructures via fluoridefree anodisation’, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering , vol. 8, no. 3, 103798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2020.103798

Charles, B, Weller, MT, Rieger, S, Hatcher, L, Henry, PF, Feldmann, J, Wolverson, D & Wilson, C 2020, ‘Phase Behavior and Substitution Limit of Mixed CesiumFormamidinium Lead TriIodide Perovskites’, Chemistry of
Materials. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b04032

Zhang, Y, Phuong, PTT, Roake, E, Khanbareh, H, Wang, Y, Dunn, S & Bowen, C 2020, ‘Thermal energy
harvesting using pyroelectricelectrochemical coupling in ferroelectric materials’, Joule, Online https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.12.019

Sims, N & Kasprzyk-Hordern, B 2019, ‘Future perspectives of wastewater-based epidemiology: Monitoringinfectious disease spread and resistance to the community level’, Environment International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105689

Zoumpouli, G, Scheurer, M, Brauch, H-J, Kasprzyk-Hordern, B, Wenk, J & Happel, O 2019, ‘COMBI, continuous ozonation merged with biofiltration to study oxidative and microbial transformation of trace organic contaminants’, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 552-563. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8EW00855H

Taylor, CM, Ramirez-Canon, A, Wenk, J & Mattia, D 2019, ‘Enhancing the photo-corrosion resistance of ZnO nanowire photocatalysts’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 378, 120799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120799

Sullivan, H, Parish, J, Thongchai, P, Kociok-Kohn, G, Hill, M & Johnson, A 2019, ‘Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of ZnS from Thioureide Single Source Precursors’, Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2784-2797. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b03363

Singer Hobbs, M, Sackville, EV, Smith, AJ, Edler, KJ & Hintermair, U 2019, ‘In-Situ Monitoring of Nanoparticle Formation during Iridium-Catalysed Oxygen Evolution by Real-Time Small Angle X-Ray Scattering’, ChemCatChem, vol. 11, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201901268

Sims, N, Rice, J & Kasprzyk-Hordern, B 2019, ‘An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for oxidative stress biomarker analysis in wastewater’, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 411, no. 11, pp. 2261-2271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-01667-8

Zhang, Y, Kumar, S, Marken, F, Krasny, M, Roake, E, Eslava, S, Dunn, S, Da Como, E & Bowen, CR 2019, ‘Pyro-electrolytic water splitting for hydrogen generation’, Nano Energy, vol. 58, pp. 183-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.01.030

Poli, I, Hintermair, U, Regue, M, Kumar, S, Sackville, EV, Baker, J, Watson, TM, Eslava, S & Cameron, PJ 2019, ‘Graphite-protected CsPbBr3 perovskite photoanodes functionalised with water oxidation catalyst for oxygen evolution in water’, Nature Communications, vol. 10, no. 1, 2097. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10124-0

Webster, SJ, López-Alled, CM, Liang, X, McMullin, CL, Kociok-Köhn, G, Lyall, CL, James, TD, Wenk, J, Cameron, PJ & Lewis, SE 2019, ‘Azulenes with aryl substituents bearing pentafluorosulfanyl groups: synthesis, spectroscopic and halochromic properties’, New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 992-1000. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8NJ05520C

Murfin, L, Lopez-Alled, CM, Lewis, S, Wenk, J, James, T & Sedgwick, A 2019, ‘A simple, azulene-based colorimetric probe for the detection of nitrite in water’, Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11705-019-1790-7

Francisco-Lopez, A, Charles, B, Weber, O, Alonso, MI, Garriga, M, Campoy-Quiles, M, Weller, M & Goñi, A 2019, ‘Equal Footing of Thermal Expansion and Electron–Phonon Interaction in the Temperature Dependence of Lead Halide Perovskite Band Gaps’, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 2971-2977. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b00876

Ahmet, I, Guc, M, Sánchez, Y, Neuschitzer, M, Izquierdo-Roca, V, Saucedo, E & Johnson, A 2019, ‘Evaluation of AA-CVD deposited phase pure polymorphs of SnS for thin films solar cells’, RSC Advances, vol. 9, no. 26, pp. 14899-14909. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9RA01938C, https://doi.org/10.1039/c9ra01938c

Bartlett, SA, Sackville, EV, Gibson, EK, Celorrio, V, Wells, PP, Nachtegaal, M, Sheehan, SW & Hintermair, U 2019, ‘Evidence for tetranuclear bis-μ-oxo cubane species in molecular iridium-based water oxidation catalysts from XAS analysis’, Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), vol. 55, no. 54, pp. 7832-7835. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9cc02088h

Chouler, J & Di Lorenzo, M 2019, ‘Pesticide detection by a miniature microbial fuel cell under controlled operational disturbances’, Water Science and Technology, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 2231-2241. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2019.207

Chouler, J, Monti, M, Morgan, W, Cameron, P & Di Lorenzo, M 2019, ‘A photosynthetic toxicity biosensor for water’, Electrochimica Acta, vol. 309, pp. 392-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2019.04.061

Ferdani, D, Pering, S, Ghosh, D, Kubiak, P, Walker, A, Lewis, S, Johnson, A, Baker, P, Islam, M & Cameron, P 2019, ‘Partial cation substitution reduces iodide ion transport in lead iodide perovskite solar cells’, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 2264-2272. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9EE00476A

Rood, S, Ahmet, H, Gomez-Ramon, A, Torrente-Murciano, L, Reina, T & Eslava, S 2019, ‘Enhanced Ceria Nanoflakes using Graphene Oxide as a Sacrificial Template for CO Oxidation and Dry Reforming of Methane’, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 242, pp. 358-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.10.011

Rood, S, Eslava Fernandez, S, Manigrasso, A & Bannister, C 2019, ‘Recent Advances in Gasoline Three-Way Catalyst Formulation – A Review’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407019859822

Tian, M, Rochat, S, Polak-Kraśna, K, Holyfield, LT, Burrows, AD, Bowen, CR & Mays, TJ 2019, ‘Nanoporous polymer-based composites for enhanced hydrogen storage’, Adsorption, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 889-901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-019-00065-x

Wallace, S 2019, ‘Atomistic insights into the order–disorder transition in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells from Monte Carlo simulations’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 312-321. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8TA04812F

Putra, BR, Harito, C, Bavykin, DV, Walsh, FC, Wahyuni, WT, Boswell, JA, Squires, AM, Schmitt, JMF, Da Silva, MA, Edler, KJ, Fletcher, PJ, Gesell, AE & Marken, F 2019, ‘Processes associated with ionic current rectification at a 2D-titanate nanosheet deposit on a microhole poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate’, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1237-1248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-019-04199-4

Zoumpouli, G, Baker, R, Taylor, C, Chippendale, M, Smithers, C, Ho, S, Mattia, D, Chew, Y-M & Wenk, J 2018, ‘A Single Tube Contactor for Testing Membrane Ozonation’, Water, vol. 10, no. 10, 1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101416

Poli, I, Baker, J, McGettrick, J, De Rossi, F, Eslava, S, Watson, T & Cameron, PJ 2018, ‘Screen printed carbon CsPbBr3 solar cells with high open-circuit photovoltage’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 6, no. 38, pp. 18677-18686. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ta07694d

Poli, I, Liang, X, Baker, R, Eslava, S & Cameron, P 2018, ‘Enhancing the hydrophobicity of perovskite solar cells using C18 capped CH3NH3PbI3 nanocrystals’, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, vol. 6, no. 26, pp. 7149-7156. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8tc01939h

Francisco-Lopez, A, Charles, B, Weber, O, Alonso, MI, Garriga, M, Campoy-Quiles, M, Weller, M & Goñi, AR 2018, ‘Pressure-Induced Locking of Methylammonium Cations versus Amorphization in Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskites’, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 122, no. 38, pp. 22073-22082. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b05188

Akbar, S, Boswell, J, Worsley, C, Elliott, JM & Squires, AM 2018, ‘Ultrathin Uniform Platinum Nanowires via a Facile Route Using an Inverse Hexagonal Surfactant Phase Template’, Langmuir, vol. 34, no. 24, pp. 6991-6996. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b03970

Ahmet, IY, Hill, MS, Raithby, PR & Johnson, AL 2018, ‘Tin Guanidinato Complexes: Oxidative Control of Sn, SnS, SnSe and SnTe Thin Film Deposition’, Dalton Transactions, vol. 47, no. 14, pp. 5031-5048. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8DT00773J

Chouler, J, Cruz-Izquierdo, A, Rengaraj, S, Scott, J & Di Lorenzo, M 2018, ‘A screen-printed paper microbial fuel cell biosensor for detection of toxic compounds in water’, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 102, pp. 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2017.11.018

Cowper, P, Pockett, A, Kociok-Köhn, G, Cameron, PJ & Lewis, SE 2018, ‘Azulene – Thiophene – Cyanoacrylic acid dyes with donor-π-acceptor structures. Synthesis, characterisation and evaluation in dye-sensitized solar cells’, Tetrahedron, vol. 74, no. 22, pp. 2775-2786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2018.04.043

Johnson, A, Ahmet, I & Thompson, J 2018, ‘Oxidative Addition to Sn(II) Guanidinate Complexes: Precursors to Tin(II) Chalcogenide Nanocrystals’, European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2018, no. 15, pp. 1670-1678. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201800071

Svane, KL, Bristow, JK, Gale, JD & Walsh, A 2018, ‘Vacancy defect configurations in the metal-organic framework UiO-66: Energetics and electronic structure’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 6, no. 18, pp. 8507-8513. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ta11155j

Petrie, B, Rood, S, Smith, BD, Proctor, K, Youdan, J, Barden, R & Kasprzyk-Hordern, B 2018, ‘Biotic phase micropollutant distribution in horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands’, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 630, pp. 648-657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.242

Sackville, EV, Marken, F & Hintermair, U 2018, ‘Electrochemical and Kinetic Insights into Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysts Derived from Cp*Ir(pyridine-alkoxide) Complexes’, ChemCatChem, vol. 10, no. 19, pp. 4280-4291. https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201800916

Sanchez-Fernandez, A, Hammond, OS, Edler, KJ, Arnold, T, Doutch, J, Dalgliesh, RM, Li, P, Ma, K & Jackson, AJ 2018, ‘Counterion binding alters surfactant self-assembly in deep eutectic solvents’, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 13952-13961. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8CP01008K

Jenkins, R, Ellis, EH, Lewis, EJ, Paterson, M, Le, C, Ting, V & Chuck, C 2017, ‘Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel’, Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1237-1245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-016-9715-x

Ng, TM, Weller, MT, Kissling, GP, Peter, LM, Dale, P, Babbe, F, De Wild, J, Wenger, B, Snaith, HJ & Lane, D 2017, ‘Optoelectronic and spectroscopic characterization of vapour-transport grown Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1192-1200. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ta09817g

Pering, SR, Deng, W, Troughton, JR, Kubiak, PS, Ghosh, D, Niemann, RG, Brivio, F, Jeffrey, FE, Walker, AB, Islam, MS, Watson, TM, Raithby, PR, Johnson, AL, Lewis, SE & Cameron, PJ 2017, ‘Azetidinium lead iodide for perovskite solar cells’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 5, no. 39, pp. 20658-20665. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TA07545F

Pockett, A, Eperon, GE, Sakai, N, Snaith, HJ, Peter, LM & Cameron, PJ 2017, ‘Microseconds, milliseconds and seconds: Deconvoluting the dynamic behaviour of planar perovskite solar cells’, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 5959-5970. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6CP08424A, https://doi.org/10.1039/c6cp08424a

Polak-Krasna, K, Dawson, R, Holyfield, LT, Bowen, CR, Burrows, AD & Mays, TJ 2017, ‘Mechanical characterisation of polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 for hydrogen storage applications’, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 3862–3875. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-016-0647-4

Sackville, EV, Kociok-Köhn, G & Hintermair, U 2017, ‘Ligand Tuning in Pyridine-Alkoxide Ligated Cp*Ir III Oxidation Catalysts’, Organometallics, vol. 36, no. 18, pp. 3578-3588. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.organomet.7b00492

Skelton, JM, Burton, LA, Jackson, A, Oba, F, Parker, SC & Walsh, A 2017, ‘Lattice dynamics of the tin sulphides SnS2, SnS and Sn2S3: vibrational spectra and thermal transport’, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , vol. 19, no. 19, pp. 12452-12465. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cp01680h

Skelton, JM, Burton, LA, Oba, F & Walsh, A 2017, ‘Metastable cubic tin sulfide: A novel phonon-stable chiral semiconductor’, APL Materials, vol. 5, no. 3, 036101. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977868

Skelton, JM, Burton, LA, Oba, F & Walsh, A 2017, ‘Chemical and Lattice Stability of the Tin Sulfides’, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 121, no. 12, pp. 6446-6454. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b12581

Wallace, SK, Svane, KL, Huhn, WP, Zhu, T, Mitzi, DB, Blum, V & Walsh, A 2017, ‘Candidate photoferroic absorber materials for thin-film solar cells from naturally occurring minerals: enargite, stephanite, and bournonite’, Sustainable Energy & Fuels, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1339-1350. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7SE00277G

Mao, B, Calatayud, DG, Mirabello, V, Kuganathan, N, Ge, H, Jacobs, RMJ, Shepherd, AM, Ribeiro Martins, JA, Bernardino De La Serna, J, Hodges, BJ, Botchway, SW & Pascu, SI 2017, ‘Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging and Super resolution microscopies shed light on the directed- and self-assembly of functional porphyrins onto carbon nanotubes and flat surfaces’, Chemistry – A European Journal, vol. 23, no. 41, pp. 9772-9789. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201605232

J. Berry, M, Taylor, C, King, W, Chew, Y-M & Wenk, J 2017, ‘Modelling of Ozone Mass-Transfer through Non-Porous Membranes for Water Treatment’, Water, vol. 9, no. 7, 452. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9070452

Charles, B, Weller, M, Weber, O, Islam, M & Dillon, J 2017, ‘Understanding the Stability of Mixed A-Cation Lead Iodide Perovskites’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 5, no. 43, pp. 22495-22499 . https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TA08617B

Poli, I, Eslava, S & Cameron, P 2017, ‘Tetrabutylammonium cations for moisture-resistant and semitransparent perovskite solar cells’ Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol 5, no. 42, pp. 22325-22333. DOI: 10.1039/c7ta06735f

Chouler, J, Bentley, I, Vaz, F, O’Fee, A, Cameron, P & Di Lorenzo, M 2017, ‘Exploring the use of cost-effective membrane materials for Microbial Fuel Cell based sensors’ Electrochimica Acta, vol 231, pp. 319-326. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2017.01.195

Wallace, S, Mitzi, D & Walsh, A 2017, ‘The steady rise of kesterite solar cells’ ACS Energy Letters, vol 2, pp. 776-779. DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00131

Bristow, JK, Butler, KT, Svane, KL, Gale, JD & Walsh, A 2017, ‘Chemical bonding at the metal-organic framework/metal oxide interface: Simulated epitaxial growth of MOF-5 on rutile TiO2’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 6226-6232. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ta00356k

Jackson, AJ, Tiana, D & Walsh, A 2016, ‘A universal chemical potential for sulfur vapours’ Chemical Science, vol 7, no. 2, pp. 1082-1092. DOI: 10.1039/C5SC03088A

Weller, M, Weber, O & Charles, B 2016, ‘Phase Behaviour and Composition in the Formamidinium-Methylammonium Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Solid Solution’ Journal of Materials Chemistry A. DOI: 10.1039/C6TA06607K

Treacher, JC, Wood, SM, Islam, MS & Kendrick, E 2016, ‘Na2CoSiO4 as a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries: Structure, electrochemistry and diffusion pathways’, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , vol. 18, no. 48, pp. 32744-32752. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6cp06777h

Tyson, JA, Mirabello, V, Calatayud, DG, Ge, H, Kociok-Kohn, G, Botchway, SW, Pantos, D & Pascu, SI 2016, ‘Thermally reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids of chiral functional naphthalenediimides for prostate cancer cells bioimaging’ Advanced Functional Materials, vol 26, no. 31, pp. 5641-5657. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601123

Chouler, J, Padgett, GA, Cameron, PJ, Preuss, K, Titirici, M-M, Ieropoulos, I & Di Lorenzo, M 2016, ‘Towards effective small scale microbial fuel cells for energy generation from urine’ Electrochimica Acta, vol 192, pp. 89-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.01.112

Brivio, F, Frost, J, Skelton, J, Jackson, A, Weber, O, Weller, M, Goñi, A, Leguy, AMA, Barnes, PRF & Walsh, A 2015, ‘Lattice dynamics and vibrational spectra of the orthorhombic, tetragonal, and cubic phases of methylammonium lead iodide’ Physical Review B, vol 92, no. 14, 144308. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.144308

Chouler, J & Di Lorenzo, M 2015, ‘Water quality monitoring in developing countries; can microbial fuel cells be the answer?’ Biosensors, vol 5, no. 3, pp. 450-470. DOI: 10.3390/bios5030450

Wood, SM, Eames, C, Kendrick, E & Islam, MS 2015, ‘Sodium ion diffusion and voltage trends in phosphates Na4M3(PO4)2P2O7 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) for possible high-rate cathodes’ Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol 119, no. 28, pp. 15935-15941. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b04648


Environmental, economic and political pressures demand the development of novel routes to fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks to replace current fossil fuel based processes.

Economic viability often depends on process integration into the existing manufacturing infrastructure, requiring a significant level of interdisciplinary understanding.

Major grants


BIOBEADS – Advanced Manufacturing for Sustainable Biodegradable Microbeads

This project will develop, in combination, new manufacturing routes to new products. Manufacturing will be based on a low-energy process that can be readily scaled up, or down, and the products will be biodegradable microbeads, microscapsules and microsponges, which share the performance characteristics of existing plastic microsphere products, but which will leave no lasting environmental trace. Using bio-based materials such as cellulose (from plants) and chitin (from crab or prawn shells), we will use continuous manufacturing methods to generate microspheres, hollow capsules and porous particles to replace the plastic microbeads currently in use in many applications.

Transatlantic discovery, characterization and application of enzymes for the recycling of polymers and composites

This Global Innovation Initiative (GII) project provides a vehicle for developing collaborative research using the strengths of all three partners (University of Bath, Ohio State University and University of São Paulo) and for building research capacity, by developing a mobile cohort of young researchers who are able to work on multi-disciplinary solutions to global challenges.

Bio-derived Feedstocks for Sustainable, UK-Based Manufacture of Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Intermediates

This project aims to establish a range of new technologies to enable the synthesis of a range of chemicals from sugar beet pulp (SBP) in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. The UK is self-sufficient in the production of SBP which is a by-product of sugar beet production (8 million tonnes grown per year) and processing. Currently SBP is dried in an energy intensive process and then used for animal feed. The ability to convert SBP into chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates will therefore have significant economic and environmental benefits.

CLEVER: Closed Loop Emotionally Valuable E-waste Recovery

Our vision is to enable a move away from the ‘throw-away’ society towards a new paradigm of durability, quality, user engagement with products, and zero-waste; specifically, to close the loop on recycling of consumer electronics and to facilitate recovery of valuable metals.

Fractionation and exploitation of the component value of DDGS

Distiller’s dried grain and solubles (DDGS) is made by separating the residue of the wheat grain from wheat-based bioethanol plants, post-fermentation (distillers grain) with a “solubles” syrup created by concentration of the “thin stillage” recovered post-distillation. The project’s ultimate aim is to extract fat/oil using supercritical CO2, use the distillers grain in a second fermentation by hydrolysis and microbial metabolism of the non-starch carbohydrates and use some of the protein in biocatalytic upgrading to defined chemical products. In the first stage of the project, where we will be developing methods to extract fat/oil, release and hydrolyse the carbohydrate and selectively metabolise certain protein components, we will benchmark the suitability of the methods by the level of retention of the animal feed value of the residue. In the second part of the programme we will develop new metabolically versatile bacterial strains able to degrade most of the non-starch carbohydrate and convert it to 1-butanol, and selective proteolytic and tandem biocatalytic methods to convert part of the protein to value-added chemical products.

Nano-Integration of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Catalysis for the Uptake and Utilisation of CO2

Nano-scale-integration of CO2 uptake and utilisation processes will provide new highly efficient single-step processes to turn CO2 into useful products (polymers, carbohydrates and fuels). Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a front-runner in the uptake and storage of CO2. Effective catalysts for the conversion of CO2 into useful chemical products have already been discovered but industrial CO2 waste streams with high CO2 concentrations are used.

In this project these two areas of existing strength are combined to provide new nano-structured functional catalyst membranes tailored to both capture and concentrate CO2 from the free atmosphere and convert CO2 into useful products in a single continuous process.

Terpene-based Manufacturing for Sustainable Chemical Feedstocks

We will develop a sustainable and integrated platform for the manufacture of industrial chemicals based on biological terpenoid feedstocks to complement the carbohydrate, oil and lignin-based feedstocks that will be available to sustainable chemistry-using industries of the future.

Key publications

Jones, E, Raikova, S, Ebrahim, S, Parsons, S, Allen, MJ & Chuck, C 2020, ‘Saltwater based fractionation and valorisation of macroalgae’, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.6443

Parsons, S, Raikova, S & Chuck, C 2020, ‘The viability and desirability of replacing palm oil’, Nature Sustainability, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-020-0487-8

Piccini, M, Leak, DJ, Chuck, CJ & Buchard, A 2020, ‘Polymers from sugars and unsaturated fatty acids:
ADMET polymerisation of monomers derived from D-xylose, D-mannose and castor oil’, Polymer Chemistry, https://doi.org/10.1039/C9PY01809C

Payne, J, McKeown, P, Mahon, M, Emanuelsson, EAC & Jones, M 2020, ‘Mono- and Dimeric Zinc(II)
Complexes for PLA Production and Degradation into Methyl Lactate – A Chemical Recycling Method’, Polymer Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0PY00192A

Abeln, F & Chuck, CJ 2020, ‘The role of temperature, pH and nutrition in process development of the unique oleaginous yeast Metschnikowia Pulcherrima’, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Online

Rowlandson, J, Edler, K, Tian, M & Ting, V 2020, ‘Towards ProcessResilient Lignin-Derived Activated
Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Applications’, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering.

Marken, F, Putra, BRP, SzotKarpińska, K, Kudła, P, Yin, H, Boswell, J, Squires, A, da Silva, M, Edler, K, Fletcher, P & Parker, S 2019, ‘Bacteriophage M13 Aggregation on a Microhole Poly(ethylene-terephthalate) Substrate Produces an Anionic Current Rectifier: Sensitivity Towards Anionic versus Cationic Guests’, ACS Applied Bio Materials, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.9b00952

Allan, SJ, De Bank, PA & Ellis, MJ 2019, ‘Bioprocess Design Considerations for Cultured Meat Production With a Focus on the Expansion Bioreactor’, Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, vol. 3, pp. 44. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2019.00044

Abeln, F & Chuck, CJ 2019, ‘Achieving a high‐density oleaginous yeast culture: Comparison of four processing
strategies using Metschnikowia pulcherrima’, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 116, no. 12, pp. 3200-3214. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.27141

Raikova, S, Godoy-Silva, RD, Palomino, A & Chuck, C 2020, ‘The storage stability of biocrude obtained by the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae’, Renewable Energy, vol. 145, pp. 1720-1729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.07.084

Williams, I, Glancy, JH, Lee, DM & Read, EO 2019, ‘Computational simulation of mechanism and isotope effects on acetal heterolysis as a model for glycoside hydrolysis’, Pure and Applied Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2019-0221

Stalker, M, Grant, R, Yong, CW, Ohene-Yeboah, L, Mays, T & Parker, S 2019, ‘Molecular simulation of hydrogen storage and transport in cellulose’, Molecular Simulation, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927022.2019.1593975

Piccini, M, Raikova, S, Allen, M & Chuck, C 2019, ‘A synergistic use of microalgae and macroalgae for heavy metal bioremediation and bioenergy production through hydrothermal liquefaction’, Sustainable Energy & Fuels, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 292-301. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8se00408k, https://doi.org/10.1039/C8SE00408K

Raikova, S, Piccini, M, Surman, M, Allen, M & Chuck, C 2019, ‘Making light work of heavy metal contamination: The potential for coupling bioremediation with bioenergy production’, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 3064-3072. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.6133

Payne, J, McKeown, P & Jones, M 2019, ‘A Circular Economy Approach to Plastic Waste’, Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 165, pp. 170-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2019.05.014

Parsons, S, Allen, M, Abeln, F, McManus, M & Chuck, C 2019, ‘Sustainability and life cycle assessment (LCA) of macroalgae-derived single cell oils’, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 232, no. 20, pp. 1272-1281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.315

Román-Ramírez, L, McKeown, P, Jones, M & Wood, J 2019, ‘Poly(lactic acid) degradation into methyl lactate catalyzed by a well-defined Zn(II) complex’, ACS Catalysis, vol. 9, pp. 409-416

Schäfer, PM, McKeown, P, Fuchs, M, Rittinghaus, R, Hermann, A, Henkel, J, Seidl, S, Roitzheim, C, Ksiazkiewicz, A, Hoffmann, A, Pich, A, Jones, M & Herres-Pawlis, S 2019, ‘Tuning a robust system: N,O Zinc Guanidine Catalysts for the ROP of Lactide’, Dalton Transactions , vol. 48, no. 18, pp. 6071-6082. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8DT04938F

Shere, H, McKeown, P, Mahon, MF & Jones, MD 2019, ‘Making the cut: Monopyrrolidine-based complexes for the ROP of lactide’, European Polymer Journal, vol. 114, pp. 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.02.046

Stewart, J, McKeown, P, Driscoll, O, Mahon, M, Ward, B & Jones, M 2019, ‘Tuning the thiolen: Al(III) and Fe(III) thiolen complexes for the isoselective ROP of rac-lactide’, Macromolecules, vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 5977-5984. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.9b01205

De Groof, V, Coma, M, Arnot, T, Leak, DJ & Lanham, AB 2019, ‘Medium Chain Carboxylic Acids from Complex Organic Feedstocks by Mixed Culture Fermentation’, Molecules, vol. 24, no. 3, 398, pp. 1-32. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030398

Parsons, S, Abeln, F, McManus, M & Chuck, C 2019,’ Techno-economic analysis (TEA) of microbial oil production from waste resources as part of a bio-refinery concept: assessment at multiple scales under uncertainty’, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 701-711. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.5811

Jones, HBL, Crean, RM, Mullen, A, Kendrick, E, Bull, SD, Wells, SA, Carbery, DR, MacMillan, F, van der Kamp, MW & Pudney, CR 2019, ‘Exposing the Interplay Between Enzyme Turnover, Protein Dynamics and the Membrane Environment in Monoamine Oxidase B’, Biochemistry, vol. 58, no. 18, pp. 2362-2372. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.9b00213

Abeln, F, Fan, J, Budarin, VL, Briers, H, Parsons, S, Allen, MJ, Henk, DA, Clark, J & Chuck, CJ 2019, ‘Lipid production through the single-step microwave hydrolysis of macroalgae using the oleaginous yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima’, Algal Research, vol. 38, 101411, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2019.101411

Driscoll, O, Hafford-Tear, C, McKeown, P, Stewart, J, Kociok-Kohn, G, Mahon, M & Jones, M 2019, ‘The synthesis, characterisation and application of iron(III)-acetate complexes for cyclic carbonate formation and the polymerisation of lactide’, Dalton Transactions , vol. 48, no. 40, pp. 15049-15058. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9DT03327K

Landels, A, Beacham, TA, Evans, CT, Carnovale, G, Raikova, S, Cole, IS, Goddard, P, Chuck, C & Allen, MJ 2019, ‘Improving electrocoagulation floatation for harvesting microalgae’, Algal Research, vol. 39, 101446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2019.101446

Price, GJ, Bone, J, Cochintoiu, K, Courtenay, J, James, R, Matthews, L & Simmons, R 2019, ‘Sonochemical production and activation of responsive polymer microspheres’, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 56, pp. 397-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.04.030

Raikova, S, Allen, M & Chuck, C 2019, ‘Co-liquefaction of Macroalgae with Common Marine Plastic Pollutants’, ACS Sustainable Chemisty and Engineering , vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 6769-6781. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b06031

Britton, L, Ditz, D, Beament, J, McKeown, P, Quilter, H, Riley, K, Mahon, M & Jones, M 2019, ‘Salalens and Salans derived from 3‐Aminopyrrolidine: Aluminium Complexation and Lactide Polymerisation’, European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2019, no. 22, pp. 2768-2773. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201900417

Jones, HBL, Crean, RM, Matthews, C, Troya, AB, Danson, MJ, Bull, SD, Arcus, VL, Van Der Kamp, MW & Pudney, CR 2018, ‘Uncovering the relationship between the change in heat capacity for enzyme catalysis and vibrational frequency through isotope effect studies’, ACS Catalysis, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 5340-5349. https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.8b01025

Chapman, R, Francis, M, Lawrence, R, Tibbetts, J & Bull, S 2018, ‘Formyloxyacetoxyphenylmethane and 1,1-diacylals as versatile O-formylating and O-acylating reagents for alcohols’, Tetrahedron, vol. 74, no. 44, pp. 6442-6452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2018.09.014

Chapman, RSL, Tibbetts, JD & Bull, SD 2018, ‘1,1-Diacyloxy-1-phenylmethanes as versatile N-acylating agents for amines’, Tetrahedron, vol. 74, no. 38, pp. 5330-5339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2018.05.044

Courtenay, JC, Ramalhete, SM, Skuze, WJ, Soni, R, Khimyak, YZ, Edler, KJ & Scott, JL 2018, ‘Unravelling cationic cellulose nanofibril hydrogel structure: NMR spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering analyses’, Soft Matter, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 255-263. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7SM02113E

Courtenay, J, Sharma, R & Scott, J 2018, ‘Recent Advances in Modified Cellulose for Tissue Culture Applications’, Molecules, vol. 23, no. 3, 654, pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030654

Fan, J, Santomauro, F, Budarin, VL, Whiffin, F, Abeln, F, Chantasuban, T, Gore-Lloyd, D, Henk, D, Scott, RJ, Clark, J & Chuck, CJ 2018, ‘The additive free microwave hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for fermentation to high value products’, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 198, pp. 776-784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.088

Raikova, S, Olsson, J, Mayers, J, Nylund, G, Albers, E & Chuck, C 2018, ‘Effect of Geographical Location on the Variation in Products Formed from the Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Ulva intestinalis’, Energy & Fuels. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b02374

Johns, M, Bae, Y, Guimarães, F, Lanzoni, EM, Costa, CA, Murray, P, Deneke, C, Galembeck, F, Scott, J & Sharma, R 2018, ‘Predicting ligand-free cell attachment on next generation cellulose-chitosan hydrogels’, ACS OMEGA, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 937–945. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.7b01583

Kobielska, PA, Telford, R, Rowlandson, J, Tian, M, Shahin, Z, Demessence, A, Ting, VP & Nayak, S 2018, ‘Polynuclear Complexes as Precursor Templates for Hierarchical Microporous Graphitic Carbon: An Unusual Approach’, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 10, no. 31, pp. 25967-25971. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b10149

Larsen, M, Herzog, S, Quilter, H & Hillmyer, M 2018, ‘Activated Polyacrylamides as Versatile Substrates for Postpolymerization Modification’, ACS Macro Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 122-126. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.7b00896

Maltby, R, Tian, S & Chew, Y-M 2018, ‘Computational Studies of a Novel Magnetically Driven Single-Use-Technology Bioreactor: A Comparison of Mass Transfer Models’, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 187, pp. 157-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2018.05.006

Marken, F, Buckingham, MA, Bull, S, Cunningham, W, Buchard, A, Folli, A & Murphy, D 2018, ‘Electrochemically Driven C-H Hydrogen Abstraction Processes with the Tetrachloro-Phthalimido-N-Oxyl (Cl4PINO) Catalyst’, Electroanalysis, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1706-1713. https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201800147

McGuire, TM, López-Vidal, EM, Gregory, GL & Buchard, A 2018, ‘Synthesis of 5- to 8-membered cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2: A one-step, atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature procedure’, Journal of CO2 Utilization, vol. 27, pp. 283-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcou.2018.08.009

McKeown, P, Mccormick, S, Mahon, M & Jones, M 2018, ‘Highly Active Mg(II) and Zn(II) complexes for the ring opening polymerisation of lactide’, Polymer Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 44, pp. 5339-5347. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8PY01369A

Gregory, GL, López-Vidal, EM & Buchard, A 2017, ‘Polymers from sugar: cyclic monomer synthesis, ring-opening polymerisation, material properties and applications’ Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), vol 53, no. 14, pp. 2198-2217. DOI: 10.1039/c6cc09578j

Coma, M, Martinez-Hernandez, E, Abeln, F, Raikova, S, Donnelly, J, Arnot, T, Allen, M, Hong, DD & Chuck, CJ 2017, ‘Organic waste as a sustainable feedstock for platform chemicals’, Faraday Discussions, vol. 202, pp. 175-195. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7FD00070G

Aaronson, BDB, He, D, Madrid, E, Johns, MA, Scott, JL, Fan, L, Doughty, J, Kadowaki, MAS, Polikarpov, I, McKeown, NB & Marken, F 2017, ‘Ionic diodes based on regenerated α-cellulose films deposited asymmetrically onto a microhole’, ChemistrySelect, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 871-875. https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.201601974

Aaronson, BDB, Wigmore, D, Johns, MA, Scott, JL, Polikarpov, I & Marken, F 2017, ‘Cellulose ionics: Switching ionic diode responses by surface charge in reconstituted cellulose films’, Analyst, vol. 142, no. 19, pp. 3707-3714. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7an00918f

Chen, Y-C, Smith, T, Hicks, RH, Doekhie, A, Koumanov, F, Wells, SA, Edler, KJ, van den Elsen, J, Holman, GD, Marchbank, KJ & Sartbaeva, A 2017, ‘Thermal stability, storage and release of proteins with tailored fit in silica’, Scientific Reports, vol. 7, 46568, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46568

Gale, EM, Johns, MA, Wirawan, RH & Scott, JL 2017, ‘Combining random walk and regression models to understand solvation in multi-component solvent systems’, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 19, no. 27, pp. 17805-17815. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cp02873c

Gregory, GL, Hierons, EM, Kociok-Kohn, G, Sharma, RI & Buchard, A 2017, ‘CO2-Driven stereochemical inversion of sugars to create thymidine-based polycarbonates by ring-opening polymerisation’, Polymer Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1714-1721. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7PY00118E

Gregory, GL, Kociok-Kohn, G & Buchard, A 2017, ‘Polymers from sugars and CO2: Ring-opening polymerisation and copolymerisation of cyclic carbonates derived from 2-deoxy-d-ribose’, Polymer Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 2093-2104. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7PY00236J

Johns, M, Bernardes, A, Ribeiro De Azevêdo, E, Guimarães, F, Lowe, J, Gale, E, Polikarpov, I, Scott, J & Sharma, R 2017, ‘On the subtle tuneability of cellulose hydrogels: implications for binding of biomolecules demonstrated for CBM 1’, Journal of Materials Chemistry B , vol. 5, no. 21, pp. 3879-3887. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TB00176B

Kirk, S, McKeown, P, Mahon, M, Kociok-Kohn, G, Woodman, T & Jones, M 2017, ‘Synthesis of Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes of diaminocyclohexane derived ligands and their exploitation for the ring opening polymerization of rac-lactide’, European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2017, no. 45, pp. 5417-5426. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201701186

Lapkin, AA, Heer, PK, Jacob, PM, Hutchby, M, Cunningham, W, Bull, SD & Davidson, MG 2017, ‘Automation of route identification and optimisation based on data-mining and chemical intuition’, Faraday Discussions, vol. 202, pp. 483-496. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fd00073a

McKeown, P, Brown-Humes, J, Davidson, MG, Mahon, MF, Woodman, TJ & Jones, M 2017, ‘Ligands and complexes based on piperidine and their exploitation of the ring opening polymerisation of rac-lactide’, Dalton Transactions , vol. 46, no. 15, pp. 5048-5057. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7DT00751E

Metz, A, Heck, J, Gohlke, CM, Kröckert, K, Louven, Y, McKeown, P, Hoffmann, A, Jones, MD & Herres-Pawlis, S 2017, ‘Reactivity of zinc halide complexes containing camphor-derived guanidine ligands with technical rac-lactide’, Inorganics, vol. 5, no. 4, 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics5040085

Metz, A, McKeown, P, Esser, B, Gohlke, C, Krockert, K, Laurini, L, Scheckenbach, M, McCormick, S, Oswald, M, Hoffmann, A, Jones, M & Herres-Pawlis, S 2017, ‘Zn(II) chlorido complexes with novel aliphatic, chiral bisguanidine ligands as catalysts in the ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide using FT-IR spectroscopy in bulk’, European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 2017, no. 47, pp. 5557-5570. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201701147

Quilter, H, Drewitt, R, Mahon, M, Kociok-Kohn, G & Jones, M 2017, ‘Synthesis of Li(I), Zn(II) and Mg(II) complexes of amine bis(phenolates) and their exploitation for the ring opening polymerisation of rac-lactide’, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, vol. 848, pp. 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2017.08.014

Raikova, S, Le, CD, Beacham, TA, Jenkins, R, Allen, M & Chuck, C 2017, ‘Towards a marine biorefinery through the hydrothermal liquefaction of macroalgae native to the United Kingdom’, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 107, pp. 244-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.10.010

Schäfer, PM, Fuchs, M, Ohligschläger, A, Rittinghaus, R, McKeown, P, Akin, E, Schmidt, M, Hoffmann, A, Liauw, MA, Jones, M & Herres-Pawlis, S 2017, ‘Highly Active N,O Zinc Guanidine Catalysts for the Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide’, ChemSusChem, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 3547-3556. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201701237

Sedgwick, AC, Chapman, RSL, Gardiner, JE, Peacock, LR, Kim, G, Yoon, J, Bull, SD & James, TD 2017, ‘A bodipy based hydroxylamine sensor’, Chemical Communications, vol. 53, no. 75, pp. 10441-10443. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7CC05872A

Wagner, J, Le, C, Ting, V & Chuck, C 2017, ‘Design and operation of an inexpensive, laboratory-scale, continuous hydrothermal liquefaction reactor for the conversion of microalgae produced during wastewater treatment’, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 165, pp. 102-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.05.006

Wagner, J, Perin, J, Coelho, RS, Ting, V, Chuck, C & Franco, T 2017, ‘Hydrothermal conversion of lipid-extracted microalgae hydrolysate in the presence of isopropanol and steel furnace residues’, Waste and Biomass Valorization, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-017-9944-7

Quilter, H, Hutchby, M, Davidson, M & Jones, M 2017, ‘Polymerisation of a terpene-derived lactone: A bio-based alternative to ԑ-caprolactone’ Polymer Chemistry, vol 8, no. 5, pp. 833-837. DOI: 10.1039/C6PY02033J

Gregory, GL, Jenisch, LM, Charles, B, Kociok-Köhn, G & Buchard, A 2016, ‘Polymers from sugars and CO2: synthesis and polymerization of a d-Mannose-based cyclic carbonate’ Macromolecules, vol 49, no. 19, pp. 7165-7169. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b01492

Donnelly, J, Horton, R, Gopalan, K, Bannister, CD & Chuck, CJ 2016, ‘Branched ketone biofuels as blending agents for Jet-A1 aviation kerosene’ Energy & Fuels, vol 30, no. 1, pp. 294-301. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01629

Mattia, D, Jones, M, O’Byrne, J, Griffiths, O, Owen, R, Sackville, E, McManus, M & Plucinski, P 2015, ‘Towards Carbon Neutral CO2 Conversion to Hydrocarbons’ ChemSusChem, vol 8, no. 23, pp. 4064-4072. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201500739

Jones, M, Brady, L, Mckeown, PM, Buchard, A, Schafer, PM, Thomas, LH, Mahon, MF, Woodman, TJ & Lowe, JP 2015, ‘Metal influence on the iso- and hetero-selectivity of complexes of bipyrrolidine derived Salan ligands for the polymerisation of rac-lactide’ Chemical Science, vol 6, no. 8, pp. 5034-5039. DOI: 10.1039/C5SC01819F

Jenkins, RW, Sargeant, LA, Whiffin, FM, Santomauro, F, Kaloudis, D, Mozzanega, P, Bannister, C, Baena, S & Chuck, CJ 2015, ‘Cross-metathesis of microbial oils for the production of advanced biofuels and chemicals’ ACS Sustainable Chemisty and Engineering , vol 3, no. 7, pp. 1526-1535. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00228

Donnelly, J, Muller, C, Wiemans , L, Chuck, C & Dominguez , P 2015, ‘Upgrading biogenic furans: blended C10–C12 platform chemicals via lyase-catalyzed carboligations and formation of novel C12 –choline chloride-based deep-eutectic-solvents’ Green Chemistry, vol 17, no. 5, pp. 2714-2718. DOI: 10.1039/C5GC00342C

Buchard, A, Carbery, DR, Davidson, MG, Ivanova, PK, Jeffery, BJ, Kociok-Köhn, G & Lowe, JP 2014, ‘Preparation of stereoregular isotactic poly(mandelic acid) through organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of a cyclic O-carboxyanhydride’ Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, vol 53, no. 50, pp. 13858-13861. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201407525

O’Byrne, J, Owen, R, Minett, D, Pascu, SI, Plucinski, PK, Jones, MD & Mattia, D 2013, ‘High CO2 and CO conversion to hydrocarbons using bridged Fe nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes’ Catalysis Science and Technology, vol 3, no. 5, pp. 1202-1207. DOI: 10.1039/C3CY20854K


Achieving sustainable economic development via chemical technologies is a multi-faceted challenge that requires an integrated response.

By adopting a whole systems approach, we combine fundamental chemistry with engineering optimization. Projects in the Processes and Manufacturing theme draw on the cross-functional expertise available in Bath to combine leading-edge technological insight with analyses of total supply chain and whole life cycle impact, in collaboration with industrial and international partners.

Major grants

BIOBEADS – Advanced Manufacturing for Sustainable Biodegradable Microbeads

This project will develop, in combination, new manufacturing routes to new products. Manufacturing will be based on a low-energy process that can be readily scaled up, or down, and the products will be biodegradable microbeads, microscapsules and microsponges, which share the performance characteristics of existing plastic microsphere products, but which will leave no lasting environmental trace. Using bio-based materials such as cellulose (from plants) and chitin (from crab or prawn shells), we will use continuous manufacturing methods to generate microspheres, hollow capsules and porous particles to replace the plastic microbeads currently in use in many applications.

Integrated energy efficient microwave and unique fermentation processes for pilot scale production of high value chemicals from lignocellulosic waste

To meet key climate change targets, while providing sustainable economic growth, the UK must develop a robust bioeconomy. This requires the valorisation of UK-specific and abundant waste lignocelluosic streams. This project aims to develop a pilot scale multi-product biorefinery by coupling breakthroughs in low energy biomass treatment and unique fermentation to produce marketable compounds.

Terpene-based Manufacturing for Sustainable Chemical Feedstocks

Our aim is to develop a sustainable, integrated platform for manufacture of industrial chemicals based on biological terpenoid feedstocks to complement carbohydrate, oil and lignin-based feedstocks that will be available to sustainable chemistry-using industries of the future. Our focus will include production of aromatics and amines which are particularly challenging targets from other biofeedstocks.

Total Recovery of All Platinum Group Metals (TRAP)

Platinum group metals (PGMs) are widely used as catalysts in the production of chemicals that enhance quality of life: pharmaceutical & cosmetic products, coatings, energy-efficient lubricants, adhesives, food cling wraps and phthalate-free plasticisers, to name just a few examples. However, the UK has no viable reserves of PGMS, so it is critical that we recover the metals both for their value (for example, rhodium, Rh, to be recovered in this project, sells for >$1100 per troy ounce!) and to ensure materials security. Total Recovery of All Platinum group metals (TRAP) is a project focussed on developing a technology package integrating both new materials and low-energy engineering processes using membranes to capture Rh from waste streams in production of large volume chemicals. To achieve this, a UK SME with expertise in metals capture, Phosphonics, will work with academic partners at the University of Bath and a large waste management company, Veolia. Recovery of metals like Rh will recover value from waste, enhance the UK’s movement towards the circular economy and ensure that we can continue to manufacture the products that we need, while reducing global C-footprint.

UK Catalysis Hub

Catalysis is a core area of contemporary science posing major fundamental and conceptual challenges, while being at the heart of the chemical industry – an immensely successful and important part of the overall UK economy (generating in excess of £50 billion per annum). UK catalytic science currently has a strong presence, but there is intense competition in both academic and industrial sectors, and a need for UK industrial activity to shift towards new innovative areas posing major challenges for the future. In light of these challenges the UK Catalysis Hub endeavours to become a leading institution, both nationally and internationally, in the field and acts to coordinate, promote and advance the UK catalysis research portfolio (UK Catalysis Hub project criteria).

Professor Matthew Davidson of the CSCT leads the “Catalysis for Chemical Transformations” theme of the UK Catalysis Hub.

Factory in a Fumehood: Reagentless Flow Reactors as Enabling Techniques for Manufacture

Why reagentless? In traditional chemical processes once a reagent has performed its task it needs to be removed from the product stream. Unless the spent reagent can be reactivated then the waste stream must be dealt with. Most processes require large amounts of reagent, placing a heavy financial and environmental burden on manufacturing of high value products such as pharmaceuticals.

Spinning Mesh Disc Reactors

This project will develop a new paradigm in spinning disc process intensification technology: the spinning mesh disc reactor (SMDR). The SMDR uses a high surface area rotating mesh supporting a catalyst to create process intensification. A liquid is centrifugally forced and accelerated into the mesh creating rapid mixing and increased heat and mass transfer rates compared to conventional reactors, accelerating reaction rates.

Key publications

Hall, SCL, Clifton, LA, Tognoloni, C, Morrison, KA, Knowles, TJ, Kinane, CJ, Dafforn, TR, Edler, KJ & Arnold,
T 2020, ‘Adsorption of a styrene maleic acid (SMA) copolymerstabilized phospholipid nanodisc on a solid-supported planar lipid bilayer’, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 574, pp. 272-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.04.013

Maltby, KA, Hutchby, M, Plucinski, P, Davidson, MG & Hintermair, U 2020, ‘Selective catalytic synthesis
of 1,2- and 8,9-cyclic limonene carbonates as versatile building blocks for novel hydroxyurethanes’, Chemistry – A European Journal. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201905561

Walsh, D, Zhang, J, Regue Grino, M, Dassanayake, R & Eslava, S 2019, ‘Simultaneous Formation of FeOx Electrocatalyst Coating within Hematite Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting’, ACS Applied Energy Materials, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 2043-2052. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.8b02113

Hall, AMR, Dong, P, Codina, A, Lowe, JP & Hintermair, U 2019, ‘Kinetics of Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation, Catalyst Deactivation, and Inhibition with Noyori Complexes As Revealed by Real-Time High-Resolution FlowNMR Spectroscopy’, ACS Catalysis, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2079-2090. https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.8b03530

Regue Grino, M, Sibby, S, Ahmet, I, Friedrich, D, Abdi, FF, Johnson, A & Eslava Fernandez, S 2019, ‘TiO2 photoanodes with exposed {0 1 0} facets grown by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of a titanium oxo/alkoxy cluster’, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 7, no. 32, pp. 19161-19172. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TA04482E

Regue Grino, M, Armstrong, K, Walsh, D, Richards, E, Johnson, A & Eslava, S 2018, ‘Mo-doped TiO2 photoanodes using [Ti4Mo2O8(OEt)10]2 bimetallic oxo cages as a single source precursor’, Sustainable Energy & Fuels, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 2674-2686. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8SE00372F

Provis-Evans, C, Emanuelsson, EAC & Webster, R 2018, ‘Rapid Metal-Free Formation of Free Phosphines from Phosphine Oxides’, Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 360, no. 20, pp. 3999-4004. https://doi.org/10.1002/adsc.201800723

Hall, AMR, Broomfield-Tagg, R, Camilleri, M, Carbery, DR, Codina, A, Whittaker, DTE, Coombes, S, Lowe, JP & Hintermair, U 2018, ‘Online monitoring of a photocatalytic reaction by real-time high resolution FlowNMR spectroscopy’ Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), vol 54, no. 1, pp. 30-33. DOI: 10.1039/c7cc07059d

Lampard, EV, Sedgwick, AC, Sombuttan, T, Williams, GT, Wannalerse, B, Jenkins, ATA, Bull, SD & James, TD 2018, ‘Dye Displacement Assay for Saccharides using Benzoxaborole Hydrogels’, ChemistryOpen, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 266-268. https://doi.org/10.1002/open.201700193

Tibbetts, JD, Carbery, DR & Emanuelsson, EAC 2017, ‘An In-Depth Study of the Use of Eosin Y for the Solar Photocatalytic Oxidative Coupling of Benzylic Amines’ ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, vol 5, no. 11, 7b01754, pp. 9826–9835. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b01754

Rochat, S, Polak-Krasna, K, Tian, M, Holyfield, L, Mays, T, Bowen, C & Burrows, A 2017, ‘Hydrogen Storage in Polymer-Based Processable Microporous Composites’ Journal of Materials Chemistry A, pp. 18752-18761. DOI: 10.1039/C7TA05232D

Coombs O’Brien, J, Torrente Murciano, L, Mattia, D & Scott, JL 2017, ‘Continuous production of cellulose microbeads via membrane emulsification’ ACS Sustainable Chemisty and Engineering , vol 5, no. 7, pp. 5931-5939. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b00662

Gale, E, Wirawan, RH, Silveira, RL, Pereira, CS, Johns, MA, Skaf, MS & Scott, JL 2016, ‘Directed discovery of greener cosolvents: new cosolvents for use in ionic liquid based organic electrolyte solutions for cellulose dissolution’ ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, vol 4, no. 11, pp. 6200-6207. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02020

Torrente-Murciano, L, Bishopp, SD, Fox, D & Scott, JL 2016, ‘Biphasic epoxidation reaction in the absence of surfactants – integration of reaction and separation steps in microtubular reactors’ ACS Sustainable Chemisty and Engineering , vol 4, no. 6, pp. 3245-3249. DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b00280

Tickell, DA, Lampard, EV, Lowe, JP, James, TD & Bull, SD 2016, ‘A Protocol for NMR Analysis of the Enantiomeric Excess of Chiral Diols Using an Achiral Diboronic Acid Template’, Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 6795–6799. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.6b01005

Hill, AK & Torrente-Murciano, L 2015, ‘Low temperature H2 production from ammonia using ruthenium-based catalysts: Synergetic effect of promoter and support’ Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol 172-173, pp. 129-135. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.02.011

Bell, TE, González-Carballo, JM, Tooze, RP & Torrente-Murciano, L 2015, ‘Single-step synthesis of nanostructured γ-alumina with solvent reusability to maximise yield and morphological purity’ Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol 3, no. 11, pp. 6196-6201. DOI: 10.1039/c4ta06692h

Bishopp, SD, Scott, JL & Torrente Murciano, L 2014, ‘Insights into biphasic oxidations with hydrogen peroxide; towards scaling up’ Green Chemistry, vol 16, no. 6, pp. 3281-3285. DOI: 10.1039/c4gc00598h


Well-being is a vital technical and societal component of sustainability, and chemical technologies associated with healthcare and well-being pose interesting problems.

Specifically, key challenges include: the generation of new synthetic methodology for the preparation of a range of pharmaceuticals by clean catalytic/biocatalytic chemistry coupled with sustainable processing; the design and development of methods for rapid sensing in hospital environments; and devices for the detection of in vivo infection and delivery of nanomedicines.

Major grants

ReNEW – Developing Resilient Nations – Towards a Public Heath Early Warning System via Urban Water Profiling

An innovative solution to current problems with rapidly identifying and responding to deteriorating public health and environmental conditions in fast developing urban environments in LMIC countries, aiming to manage risks to public and environmental health relating to urbanisation, population growth, lack of infrastructure and the overarching challenge of climate change. We will establish a cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research capability, based on engineering and digital technology approaches, for real-time community-wide diagnostics and tuneable multi-hazard public health early warning system (EWS) with the ultimate goal of strengthening communities’ resilience.

Bacteriosafe — Development of a wound dressing to detect pathogenic bacteria

The aim of the BacterioSafe consortium is to construct, test and develop a unique active wound dressing, which incorporates novel colourimetric sensor and active therapeutic processes for detecting and counteracting pathogenic bacteria in wounds. The initial focus will be burn wounds, but the application to other types of wounds is intended. The inspiration of this project is the natural nono-biological mechanism of bacterial attack of healthy cells.

Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of New Functional Biomaterials for Non Invasive Early Tumour Diagnosis

Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer prior to metastasis has a significant impact on patient survival. This project will demonstrate novel luminescent optical imaging agents that could lead to safe, extremely accurate, non-invasive and affordable early diagnostics of cancers which are difficult to access non-invasively due to limited light penetration through tissues such as the alimentary tract.

Encapsulated phage for treatment of burns and wound site infections

One of the primary problems in the treatment of burns is bacterial infection, which can delay healing, increase pain; increase the risk of scarring and in some cases cause death. In recent years there have been great improvements in the treatment of burns, but the problem of infection has not gone away. This project, in partnership with Biocontrol Ltd and the departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the University of Bath, will encapsulate specific lytic phages within phospholipid vesicles, and incorporate the vesicles into a prototype burn / wound dressing and a topical aqueous cream.

Key publications

Paterson, AJ, Dunås, P, Rahm, M, Norrby, PO, Kociok-Köhn, G, Lewis, SE & Kann, N 2020, ‘Palladium Catalyzed Stereoselective Arylation of Biocatalytically Derived Cyclic 1,3-Dienes: Chirality Transfer via a
Heck-Type Mechanism’, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2464-2469. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c00708

Köhn, R, Coxon, A, Chunawat, S, Heron, C, Mihan, S, Lyall, C, Reeksting, S & Kociok-Kohn, G 2020,  Triazacyclohexane Chromium Triflate Complexes as Precursors for the Catalytic Selective Olefin Trimerisation and its Investigation by Mass Spectrometry’, Polyhedron.

Al-Ani, A, Herdes, C, Wilson, C & Castro Dominguez, B 2020, ‘Engineering a New Access Route to Metastable Polymorphs with Electrical Confinement’, Crystal Growth and Design. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.9b01100

Hopkins, JR, Crean, RM, Catici, DAM, Sewell, AK, Arcus, VL, Van der Kamp, MW, Cole, DK & Pudney, CR 2020, ‘Peptide cargo tunes a network of correlated motions in human leukocyte antigens’, FEBS Journal.

Wu, L, Wang, Y, Weber, M, Liu, L, Sedgwick, AC, Bull, SD, Huang, C & James, TD 2019, ‘Correction: ESIPT-based ratiometric fluorescence probe for the intracellular imaging of peroxynitrite (Chemical Communications (2018) 54 (9953-9956) DOI: 10.1039/C8CC04919J)’, Chemical Communications, vol. 55, no. 25, pp. 3674. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9cc90119a

Dunås, P, Paterson, AJ, Kociok-Köhn, G, Lewis, SE & Kann, N 2019, ‘Selective Iron-Mediated C- and O-Addition of Phenolic Nucleophiles to a Cyclohexadiene Scaffold Using Renewable Precursors’, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 7155-7162. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b00127

Weber, M, Mackenzie, AB, Bull, SD & James, TD 2018, ‘Fluorescence based Tool to Detect Endogenous Peroxynitrite in M1-Polarized Murine J774.2 Macrophages’, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 90, no. 17, pp. 10621–10627. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b03035

Scott, C, Labes, R, Depardieu, M, Battilocchio, C, Davidson, M, Ley, S, Wilson, C & Robertson, K 2018, ‘Integrated plug flow synthesis and crystallisation of pyrazinamide’, Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 631-634. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RE00087E

Courtenay, JC, Deneke, C, Lanzoni, EM, Costa, CA, Bae, Y, Scott, JL & Sharma, RI 2017, ‘Modulating cell response on cellulose surfaces; tunable attachment and scaffold mechanics’ Cellulose, pp. 1-16. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1612-3

Lopez-Alled, CM, Sanchez Fernandez, A, Edler, K, Sedgwick, A, Bull, S, McMullin, C, Kociok-Kohn, G, James, T, Wenk, J & Lewis, S 2017, ‘Azulene–boronate esters: colorimetric indicators for fluoride in drinking water’ Chemical Communications, vol 53, no. 93, pp. 12580-12583. DOI: 10.1039/c7cc07416f

Leitch, JA, Mcmullin, CL, Paterson, AJ, Mahon, MF, Bhonoah, Y & Frost, CG 2017, ‘Ruthenium-Catalyzed para-Selective C−H Alkylation of Aniline Derivatives’, Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, vol. 56, no. 47, pp. 15131-15135. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201708961

Leitch, JA, Heron, CJ, Mcknight, J, Kociok-Köhn, G, Bhonoah, Y & Frost, CG 2017, ‘Ruthenium catalyzed remote C4-selective C–H functionalisation of carbazoles via σ-activation’, Chemical Communications. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7CC07606A

Mahy, W, Cabezas-Hayes, S, Kociok-Köhn, G & Frost, CG 2017, ‘A Highly Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed O,S Rearrangement of Cyclic Thiocarbonates’, European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2017, no. 43, pp. 6441-6444. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.201701181

Paterson, AJ, Heron, CJ, McMullin, CL, Mahon, MF, Press, NJ & Frost, CG 2017, ‘α-Halo carbonyls enable: Meta selective primary, secondary and tertiary C-H alkylations by ruthenium catalysis’, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 28, pp. 5993-6000. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ob01192j

Chen, Y-C, Smith, T, Hicks, RH, Doekhie, A, Koumanov, F, Wells, SA, Edler, KJ, van den Elsen, J, Holman, GD, Marchbank, KJ & Sartbaeva, A 2017, ‘Thermal stability, storage and release of proteins with tailored fit in silica’ Scientific Reports, vol 7, 46568. DOI: 10.1038/srep46568

Marcé, P, Paterson, AJ, Mahon, MF & Frost, CG 2016, ‘Mechanistic insight into ruthenium catalysed: meta -sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridine’ Catalysis Science and Technology, vol 6, no. 19, pp. 7068-7076. DOI: 10.1039/c6cy01254j

Morrison, K, Akram, A, Mathews, A, Khan, ZA, Patel, JH, Zhou, C, Hardy, DJ, Moore-Kelly, C, Patel, R, Odiba, V, Knowles, TJ, Javed, MH, Chmel, NP, Dafforn, TR & Rothnie, AJ 2016, ‘Membrane protein extraction and purification using styrene–maleic acid (SMA) copolymer: effect of variations in polymer structure’, Biochemical Journal, vol. 473, no. 23, pp. 4349-4360. https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20160723

Frost, CG & Paterson, AJ 2015, ‘Directing remote Meta-C–H functionalization with cleavable auxiliaries: Frost and Paterson discuss various methods of “going meta”, notably the report from Jin-Quan Yu and co-workers’ ACS Central Science, vol 1, no. 8, pp. 418-419. DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.5b00358

Mahy, W, Plucinski, P, Jover, J & Frost, CG 2015, ‘Ruthenium-catalyzed O- to S-alkyl migration: a pseudoreversible Barton-McCombie pathway’ Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, vol 54, no. 37, pp. 10944-10948. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201505280

Paterson, A, St. John-Campbell , S, Mahon, M, Press, NJ & Frost, C 2015, ‘Catalytic meta-selective C–H functionalization to construct quaternary carbon centres’ Chemical Communications, vol 51, no. 64, pp. 12807-12810. DOI: 10.1039/C5CC03951G

Abou-Shehada, S, Teasdale, MC, Bull, SD, Wade, CE & Williams, JMJ 2015, ‘Lewis acid activation of pyridines for nucleophilic aromatic substitution and conjugate addition’ ChemSusChem, vol 8, no. 6, pp. 1083-1087. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403154

Gulati, S, Jamshad, M, Knowles, TJ, Morrison, K, Downing, R, Cant, N, Collins, R, Koenderink, JB, Ford, RC, Overduin, M, Kerr, ID, Dafforn, TR & Rothnie, AJ 2014, ‘Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters’, Biochemical Journal, vol. 461, no. 2, pp. 269-278. https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20131477

Abou-Shehada, S & Williams, JMJ 2014, ‘Separated tandem catalysis: It’s about time!’ Nature Chemistry, vol 6, no. 1, pp. 12-13. DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1826

Mahy, W, Plucinski, PK & Frost, CG 2014, ‘Copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of N-Aryl oxazolidinones from amino alcohol carbamates’ Organic Letters, vol 16, no. 19, pp. 5020-5023. DOI: 10.1021/ol502322c

Holling, N, Dedi, C, Jones, CE, Hawthorne, JA, Hanlon, GW, Salvage, JP, Patel, BA, Barnes, LM & Jones, BV 2014, ‘Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters’, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 355, no. 1, pp. 20-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6968.12451